Executive summary

A review examined a total of 26 original studies (15 protons, 10 carbon ions, and 1 helium/neon studies) involving a total of 1,118 patients (437 with protons, 670 with carbon ions, and 11 with helium/neon) treated with curative-intent charged particle reRT.

All studies were retrospective in nature, and the majority of them (n=23, 88 %) were reported as single institution experiences. ReRT with protons achieved 2-year local control rates ranging from 50% to 86%, and 41% to 92% for carbon ion reRT. The 2-year overall survival rates for proton and carbon ion reRT ranged from 33% to 80%, and 50% to 86% respectively. Late ≥ G3 toxicities ranged from 0% to 37%, with brain necrosis, ototoxicity, visual deficits, and bleeding as the most common complications. Grade 5 toxicities for all treated patients occurred in 1.4% (n= 16/1118) with fatal bleeding as the leading cause.

This review concluded that curative intent skull base and head and neck reRT with charged particle radiotherapy is feasible and safe in well-selected cases, associated with comparable or potentially improved local control and toxicity rates compared to historical reRT studies using photon radiotherapy.

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