Executive summary

A review article by the group from National Cancer Center, Korea detailed the dosimetric and clinical benefits of PBT in the settings of early, intermediate and advanced stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A recent randomized phase III trial demonstrated the non-inferiority of PBT in local tumor control compared to current standard radiofrequency ablation in early-stage HCC. PBT also tended to show more favorable outcomes compared to transarterial chemoembolization in the intermediate stage, and has proven effective in-field disease control and safe toxicity profiles in advanced HCC. PBT is also being used successfully in challenging clinical conditions, such as major vascular invasion and reirradiation cases.