Executive summary

This study compared the survival outcomes and toxicities of high-dose PBT of 96.6 GyRBE and CRT of 60 Gy using propensity score-matched treatment cohorts. From a total of 235 patients, 26 were selected in each group by propensity score matching. This study found that the median OS of the PBT group was 28.3 months, while the median OS of the CRT group was 21.2 months. Although acute radiation-related toxicities were equivalent between the PBT and CRT groups, radiation necrosis as a late radiation-related toxicity was observed significantly more frequently in the PBT group. The authors concluded high-dose PBT provided significant survival benefits for patients with newly diagnosed GBM compared to CRT. Radiation necrosis remains an issue in high-dose PBT.

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