Executive summary

A review summarized FLASH radiotherapy research conducted to date and the current theories explaining the FLASH effect, with an emphasis on the future potential for FLASH proton beam therapy. The FLASH effect has been confirmed in many studies in recent years, both in vitro and in vivo, with even the first patient with T-cell cutaneous lymphoma being treated using FLASH radiotherapy. A promising FLASH delivery method is via proton beam therapy, as the dose can be deposited deeper within the tissue.