Executive summary

This review article examined eight original studies with a total of 127 patients. There was significantly less irradiated small bowel with PBT compared to 3DCRT and IMRT (p < 0.00001 and p = 0.02, respectively). Similar dosimetric results were observed for bladder and pelvic bone marrow. Three studies reported clinical and oncological results for PBT in recurrent rectal cancer with overall survival reported as 43 %, 68 % and 77.2 %, and one study in primary rectal cancer with 100 % disease free survival.

PBT have shown promising results. There are currently no ongoing clinical trials for primary rectal cancer and PBT. More research is required to validate its potential role in dose escalation, higher complete response rate and organ preservation without increasing toxicity.

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