Published by the Loma Linda group, this study reported the results of their randomized trial compared PBT with TACE for HCC. Patients were randomized to receive PBT (n = 36) or TACE (n = 40). Proton therapy was administered in 15 fractions to a total dose of 70.2 GyE. The 2-year OS for PBT versus TACE was similar at 68% (p = .80), however, median PFS was improved for PBT versus TACE (p = .002). LC was improved with PBT versus TACE (p = .003). Days of posttreatment hospitalization were 24 for PBT and 166 for TACE (p < .001). Total mean cost per patient for treatment and posttreatment care revealed a 28% cost savings for PBT. The authors concluded that this data supports the use of PBT as a viable treatment alternative to TACE for patients with HCC within transplant criteria.